São Paulo is both the name of a state and a city. “Those born in the town of São Paulo are called” Paulistanos. “Those born in the state of São Paulo but not in its capital are called” Paulistas.
To create a visualization as the one below, pick one color for all bars with same category in the chart. One unique color per bar may distract the reader, and give an impression that there is an additional meaning to the data. One exception here is highlighting specific bars with a separate color to make a point in the storytelling: